With images from southern and central Russia in the news lately due to extensive wildfires, I thought it would be interesting to look back in time with this extraordinary collection of color photographs taken between 1909 and 1912. In those years, photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863-1944) undertook a photographic survey of the Russian Empire with the support of Tsar Nicholas II. He used a specialized camera to capture three black and white images in fairly quick succession, using red, green and blue filters, allowing them to later be recombined and projected with filtered lanterns to show near true color images. The high quality of the images, combined with the bright colors, make it difficult for viewers to believe that they are looking 100 years back in time – when these photographs were taken, neither the Russian Revolution nor World War I had yet begun. Collected here are a few of the hundreds of color images made available by the Library of Congress, which purchased the original glass plates back in 1948.
Le mercredi 31 juillet 1912, eut lieu entre Jarville et Lunéville, aux environs de Nancy, un essai de liaison aérienne postale en France. Cette mission avait été confiée au lieutenant Nicaud, assisté du mécanicien Million. Il s’agissait de transporter quelques 15000 lettres réparties dans trois grands sacs postaux, le tout pour un poids d’environ 50 kgs en effectuant un trajet aller-retour de Jarville à Lunéville (27km), en passant par Nancy, en 56 minutes, remise du courrier à l’administration postale comprise :
Carte postale du 31 juillet 1912, Nancy
Cette expérience qui préfigurait un véritable service postal aérien dans l’ensemble de l’Hexagone, s’était faite au profit de l’aviation militaire, à qui était destiné le fruit des ventes des timbres postaux spécialement édités pour l’occasion.
The question of the diet of men does not arise in a uniform way. Because throughout the world, our production and consumption patterns are different.
I – Case study : feeding men in Eastern Asia (China/Japan)
A – Ensuring food security in Japan1 – A very varied production, but strong constraints
Doc 1 : Gourmet solitaire (manga – 8 pages)
The issue of feeding people does not arise evenly. For the world, our ways of production and consumption are different.
=> Description of available food supply.
- Distribution: cereals, vegetables, fruit, place of fish and fish products in general
- very varied choice (even the hero does not know all the specialties)
=> Access to food is not a problem, (100 y ≈ 1 euro) when we know that 25% of the world’s population lives on less than 1 euro a day.
=> rich Food, varied and abundant in seafood
Unlike the other countries of the North (USA, Europe, Australia) the Japanese are not in a situation of overeating (average in the north 3 300 kca / hab / day, while 2,500 Kca / hab / day is enough for an average person – which is the case in Japan) due to this high consumption of fish and vegetables, while elsewhere a diet rich in meat and fat causes problems related to overweight especially in the poorest population.
It was built to replace two earlier temples of Athena on the Acropolis. One of these, of which almost no trace remains today, stood south of the Parthenon (between the Parthenon and the Erechtheum). The other, which was still being built at the time of the Persian sack in 480, was on the same spot as the Parthenon. We know the names of the architects (Iktinos and Kallikrates) and also of the sculptor (Pheidias) who made the massive chryselephantine cult statue of the goddess.
1 : the way we see it
2 : the way it should be if straight
3 : the way it has been built
The Parthenon frieze runs around the upper edge of the temple wall. Its relatively small size (3 feet 5 inches tall) and placement (inside from the triglyphs and metopes) made it fairly hard to see from the ground. Unlike the metopes, the frieze has a single subject on all four sides. On three sides (north, west, and south) it depicts a procession of horsemen, musicians, sacrificial animals, and other figures with various ritual functions. On the east side there is a scene centered on a child handing a folded cloth to an older man. On one side of them seated gods and goddess are in attendance; on the other, two girls are carrying something. Although the state of preservation is poor, the interpretation of the subject has hotly debated. Most scholars agree that it represents the Panathenaic procession, but some think it is a mythical, « original » procession, while others believe that it is the procession which took place in the same period as the temple was built, and that this illustrates the (over-)confident spirit of the Athenians, who dared to put themselves where ordinarily only gods and heroes might be found.
End of the Parthenon ?
Lord Byron — The Curse of Minerva
- “Mortal!”—’twas thus she spake—“that blush of shame
- Proclaims thee Briton, once a noble name;
- First of the mighty, foremost of the free,
- Now honour’d less by all, and least by me;
- Chief of thy foes shall Pallas still be found.
- Seek’st thou the cause of loathing?—look around.
- Lo! here, despite of war and wasting fire,
- I saw successive tyrannies expire.
- ’Scaped from the ravage of the Turk and Goth,
- Thy country sends a spoiler worse than both.
- Survey this vacant, violated fane;
- Recount the relics torn that yet remain:
- These Cecrops placed, this Pericles adorn’d,
- What more I owe let gratitude attest—
- Know, Alaric and Elgin did the rest.
- That all may learn from whence the plunderer came,
- The insulted wall sustains his hated name