Timeline of Early Modern Period

Early Modern 1450-1750

1450   Northern Renaissance in Europe
1453   Constantinople falls: end of Byzantine Empire; rise of Ottoman Empire
1462   Much of Russia freed by Ivan II (Ivan the Great) from Tartars
1464-1591   Kingdom of Songhai in Africa
1479   Formation of single Spanish monarchy
1480   Expulsion of Tartars from Russia
1493  Beginning of Spanish govt in the Americas (2nd voyage of Christopher Columbus) Lire la suite « Timeline of Early Modern Period »

Timeline of Greek & Roman Antiquity

I before 3500 Stone Age: the « neolithic revolution » of near east civilizations (esp. Mesopotamia) sees the rise of irrigation & agriculture; towns & cities; temple architecture; writing; intense social stratification
II 3500-1100 Bronze Age (note that, in antiquity, the historical ages were Gold, Silver, Bronze, [Heroic,] & Iron)
3500-1450 Minoan civilization at Crete (non-Greek-speaking); Linear A syllabary
c. 2000 First Greek-speaking (IE) tribes enter Greece (the Achaeans?)
1700-1100 Late Bronze Age Mycenean civilization (Greek-speaking) on mainland; about 1450 takes over Crete. Linear B syllabary. Homer sometimes hearkens back to this world
1250 Trojan war (traditional)
1200-1100 Second group of tribes (Dorians) enters Greece and destroys Mycenean civilization; many Achaeans emigrate to Asia Minor & become known as Ionian Greeks; others resist and stay on at Athens. Disappearance of Linear B.
III 1100-750 Iron (or Dark) Age: the Age of Homer (the world of the Iliad and Odyssey); Havelock’s total non-literacy
1100-875 Proto-geometric period in pottery
875-750 Geometric period in pottery; monarchies overthrown by oligarchies; rise of the polis; beginnings of Athenian cultural prominence; « eighth century renaissance »
776 First Olympic games
IV 750-480 Archaic period: Havelock’s craft literacy; Cole’s pre-rhetoric
750 adaptation of Phoenician alphabet; revival of writing in Greece
750-500 era of Greek colonization in West and East; continued development of polis culture; rapid increase in commercial & agricultural activity; hoplite revolution; rise of panhellenic religious festivals and games; emergence of rational and scientific thought
725-675 writing down of the Iliad
720-620 Orientalizing period in pottery
620-480 Archaic period proper; oligarchies overthown by tyrants; rise of democracy; standardization and diffusion of Homeric epics; esp. at Athens
  Lire la suite « Timeline of Greek & Roman Antiquity »

A Chronology of the Middle Ages (500-1500)

500   Clovis, founder of the Frankish state, conquers most of France and Belgium, converting his territories to Western Catholic Christianity. He founds the Merovingian dynasty and passes his kingdom on to his sons, who begin fighting one another for additional territory.

590   Pope Gregory, originally a Benedictine, creates a religious policy for western Europe by fusing the Roman papacy with Benedictine monasticism. He creates the Latin church, which serves to counteract the subordination of the Roman popes to Eastern emperors. As the fourth great « church father, » St. Gregory the Great draws his theology from Ambrose of Milan, Jerome and AUGUSTINE OF HIPPO. His concepts of purgatory and penance widen the gulf between the Eastern and Western Churches. He reigns until his death in 604.

600   The early Middle Ages begin in 600 and last until 1050. Lire la suite « A Chronology of the Middle Ages (500-1500) »

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